Complementary formations of Doctorate in Electrical and Information Engineering: Internal Credits or ECTS
In the frame of the new mission of the doctoral schools in the scheme of the Bologna process, the PhD students must now attend to lectures and complementary formations to be better prepared to the economical word. These formations are taken into account in the diploma under several forms, depending of the country or of the institutions. The resulting questions are the following: the definition of the number of lectures, the equivalence in hours, and the equivalence in credits. How to get the credits? Are these credits validated when a student move in the EU or for life-long learning? Is it mandatory to organize an examination to get a credit? The present paper tries to explain the origin of these different questions and to carry out some answers based on a long experience of functioning.
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