Elektronika ir Elektrotechnika https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt <div><em>ELEKTRONIKA IR ELEKTROTECHNIKA</em> (ISSN 1392-1215) is a peer-reviewed open access bimonthly research journal of Kaunas University of Technology.</div> <p>The research journal <em>ELEKTRONIKA IR ELEKTROTECHNIKA</em> publishes original research papers on featuring practical developments that might have a significant impact in the field of <em>electronics and electrical engineering</em>, and focuses on automation, robotics &amp; control; automotive electronics; electric vehicles; electrical engineering; electronic measurements; electronics; high frequency technologies, microwaves; micro &amp; nano-electronics; power electronics; renewable energy; signal technologies; telecommunications engineering. It is aimed not only to researchers of certain field , but also to the wider public.</p> <p><strong><em>WoS</em></strong><strong><em>: </em></strong><em>Impact</em> <em>Factor</em><em> 0.707 (</em><em>2019); </em><em>5-Year </em><em>Impact</em> <em>Factor</em> <em>0.656 (</em><em>2019) </em><strong><em>Scopus</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong> <em>SCImago</em> <em>Journal</em> <em>Rank</em><em> 0.18 (2019)</em></p> en-US <p>The copyright for the paper in this journal is retained by the author(s) with the first publication right granted to the journal. The authors agree to the <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC BY 4.0)</a> agreement under which the paper in the Journal is licensed.</p> <p>By virtue of their appearance in this open access journal, papers are free to use with proper attribution in educational and other non-commercial settings with an acknowledgement of the initial publication in the journal.</p> eejournal@ktu.lt (Elektronika ir Elektrotechnika) eejournal@ktu.lt (Executive Editor Darius Andriukaitis) Thu, 28 Apr 2022 11:55:17 +0300 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Investigation of Leakage Current in Micro M-I-M Structure Using Multilayer High-K Dielectric Materials with COMSOL Multiphysics https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/28102 <p>Micro Metal-Insulator-Metal (M-I-M) capacitor structures are well-known passive components that have been broadly used in integrated circuits, Radio Frequency (RF) decoupling, Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) sensors, and health monitoring systems. Thanks to its small dimensions, it can be easily integrated into microelectronics. With the acceleration of the scalling dawn of integrated circuits and systems, the size of the capacitor and other components must be reduced. It has become challenging to fabricate a micro M-I-M capacitor with low leakage current and high-capacity density since the leakage current and depletion effect are reported as the main factors of the gradual loss of electrical energy in the micro-M-I-M capacitor. Thus, minimizing the leakage current and the depletion effect became a new research trend. This paper presents a penta-layer high-K dielectric between the electrodes to reduce the leakage current in the micro-M-I-M capacitor. For this purpose, various dielectric materials were investigated. It was found that niobium pentaoxide (Nb<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>) and hafnium dioxide (HfO<sub>2</sub>) as penta-layer dielectric materials provide the lowest leakage current between the two electrodes. The recorded values of leakage current density are reduced to a mere 0.95 µAmps/mm<sup>2</sup> from several µAmps/mm<sup>2</sup> at the operating voltage of 1 V. The reported micro-M-I-M capacitor has potential application as an energy storage device.</p> Naqeeb Ullah, Lingling Huang, Muhammad Rizwan Amirzada, Anayat Ullah, Muhammad Luqman Haider, Muhammad Khurram Ehsan, Yousuf Khan Copyright (c) 2022 Naqeeb Ullah, Lingling Huang, Muhammad Rizwan Amirzada, Anayat Ullah, Muhammad Luqman Haider, Muhammad Khurram Ehsan, Yousuf Khan https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/28102 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Title https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/31275 Elektronika ir Elektrotechnika Copyright (c) 2022 Elektronika ir Elektrotechnika https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/31275 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Capacity Analysis of Channel Inversion Using Space-Time Block Coding with Transmit Power Control https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/30130 <p>In this paper, we analyze channel inversion with transmit diversity in terms of capacity and bit error rates in correlated fading. We obtain the Shannon capacity of Rayleigh fading channel under channel inversion using spatially correlated dual branch orthogonal space-time block coding, in comparison with the optimal power and rate adaptation policy, and provide a simple fixed-rate power adaptation policy to invert the Rayleigh fading into additive white Gaussian noise channel, and obtain the bit error rates using binary phase-shift keying modulation with/without channel inversion. It is found that the correlation generally causes a loss in capacity, which becomes more distinct with channel inversion relative to the optimal power and rate adaptation policy, especially when power correlation is greater than 0.5, and hinders otherwise possible full inversion. Transmit power truncation introduces power gain over full inversion, which manifests itself as an increase in capacity and a decrease in bit error probability. This gain increases with decreasing truncation level of the allowed peak transmit power. Inverting with truncation, a gain of about 19 dB in signal-to-noise ratio is obtained over classical single-antenna transmission without inversion. This gain may be further increased by a combination of truncation and correlation levels, as the correlation surprisingly turns to advantage when the normalized permitted peak-power is below 2 dB. However, the gain is normally accompanied by lower throughput or bandwidth expansion for a fixed data rate due to outage.</p> Nergis Erdem, Tuncay Ertas Copyright (c) 2022 Nergis Erdem, Tuncay Ertas https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/30130 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Design of Elastic Call Admission Control in Tidal Load Scenario for Cloud-based Cellular Networks https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/30570 <p>Cellular networks have witnessed an unprecedented expansion represented by the number of subscribers in addition to the unlimited number of applications. In the era of IoT, connections may involve machines working side by side with humans on the same network. Tidal load is one of the key challenges in mobile networks, which represents a temporary phenomenon resulting from increasing traffic volumes at certain times of the day in particular places. This leads to the problem of overutilization of some base stations, particularly in fixed resources allocation systems such as 4G LTE architecture, which contains physically separated base stations. This results in increasing the dropping and blocking probability for the incoming calls in an overloaded area, while others suffer from underutilization or might be almost idle for a particular time. In this paper, an Elastic Call Admission Control (ECAC) approach is proposed to reduce the probability of blocking and dropping to improve the network performance in the tidal load scenario. This is achieved using the concept of gain multiplexing technique and cloud-based cellular architecture for utilizing the shared available recourses of the co-located virtual base stations in the cloud. A Fuzzy Type 2 (FT2) system is used to maintain the switching decision for resource sharing mode, the network load is predicted in advance using Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) model. Performance evaluation is carried out using the cloud-based Fog-Radio Access Network (F-RAN) platform. Compared to legacy LTE architecture, the results illustrate a noticeable enhancement in terms of minimizing blocking probability, enhancing overall network performance represented by network data throughput, and network utilization.</p> Ali Mahmood, Azad R. Kareem, Ahmed R. Nasser Copyright (c) 2022 Ali Mahmood, Azad R. Kareem, Ahmed R. Nasser https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/30570 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Thermal Stability Analysis and Design for Electrical Product in Short-Circuit Fault https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/29521 <p>In short-circuit faults, the thermal stability of the metal conductor is an important factor for electrical products, which directly affects the safe use of the products. Because it is dangerous to test the thermal stability under short circuit, it is difficult to obtain the required power supply in a conventional laboratory, so at present, the research on thermal stability is mostly based on the theoretical analysis of the finite element method. In this paper, a short-circuit fault is studied. The short-time withstand current test is adopted, in which the current and time can be controlled. First, the results compare three formulas for calculating the current density and verify them. The temperature and current variation of the conductor are calculated and tested. The theoretical results are compared with the experimental results, and the current variation model I is established. Then, the short-time withstand current test is carried out to verify the theoretical calculation, and model II is designed, which is a modification of model I. Finally, a product design method is proposed and verified by experiments. This basic research is the verification test of the theoretical literature, and the research results can be applied to the design of electrical products under short-circuit fault.</p> Jing Hao, Jungang Zhou, Yachao Wang Copyright (c) 2022 Jing Hao, Jungang Zhou, Yachao Wang https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/29521 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Artificial Bee and Ant Colony-assisted Performance Improvements in Artificial Neural Network-based Rotor Fault Detection https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/29819 <p>Asynchronous motors are the most commonly used types of motor in the industry. They are preferred because of their ease of control and reasonable cost. Since it is not desirable to suspend production in factories, it is required that motor failures used in production lines be detected quickly and easily. In this article, sound signals were recorded during the operation of the asynchronous motor, which is operational and with a rotor bar crack; and filtering, normalization, and Fast Fourier Transform were performed. The detection of rotor broken bar error was examined using the feed-forward backpropagation Artificial Neural Network (ANN) method. With intuitive algorithms such as the artificial bee colony and artificial ant colony, improvements to the ANN results were investigated. The experimental results verified that intuitive algorithms can improve the estimation performance of the neural network.</p> Osman Zeki Erbahan, Ibrahim Aliskan Copyright (c) 2022 Osman Zeki Erbahan, Ibrahim Aliskan https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/29819 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Capacitor Allocation Using Multiobjective Water Cycle Algorithm and Fuzzy Logic https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/30355 <p>Radial distribution systems are susceptible to a lack of voltage profile and increase system losses, particularly at the distant ends of the distribution feeder. This manuscript proposes an approach to solve the optimal capacitor placement problem in radial distribution networks to minimize system losses, improve the voltage profile of all buses, promote total voltage stability, and improve net savings. The optimal capacitor placement problem is solved in two stages. Firstly, normalized loss sensitivity factor and voltage magnitude are used as inputs to build fuzzy expert rules to arrange the most candidate buses for capacitor placement. Secondly, a multiobjective water cycle algorithm is applied to determine the optimal sizes and locations of capacitors within the predefined search space using fuzzy expert rules. The multiobjective function is formulated with operational constraints considering fixed and switched capacitors. To validate the effectiveness of this methodology, it is demonstrated on IEEE 33 and IEEE 94-bus radial distribution networks. Clearly, the findings show the improvement in the voltage profile and static voltage stability, the significant reduction in system losses, as well as the enhancement in overall savings. Furthermore, a comprehensive evaluation is also carried out by comparing the numerical results with other methods such as interior point algorithm, a combination fuzzy real coded genetic algorithm method, water cycle algorithm for IEEE 33-bus system and artificial bee colony algorithm for IEEE 94-bus system which prove the viability and effectiveness of the proposed methodology.</p> Menna Allah E. Mohamed El-Saeed, Amal F. Abdel-Gwaad, Mohamed A. Farahat Copyright (c) 2022 Menna Allah E. Mohamed El-Saeed, Amal F. Abdel-Gwaad, Mohamed A. Farahat https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/30355 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Cohesive DS-PID and FQL Control Mechanisms to Enhance the Performance of the Electric Vehicle System https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/30492 <p>Electric Vehicles (EVs) have become more popular and attractive in recent days, due to their benefits of zero carbon emissions, cost effectiveness, reduced maintenance, and effectiveness. In which, controlling the speed of motor and proper power regulation are the important tasks for designing the EV systems. For this purpose, various control techniques have been developed in the existing works, but it limits with the major problems of reduced efficiency, increased error output, and high time consumption. To solve these problems, this paper intends to develop an advanced and novel optimization-based control algorithms for controlling the speed of motor and regulating the output power of EV systems. Here, the Maximum Peak Point Control (MPPT) technique is utilized to extract the increased amount of power from the PV panels. Then, the Dual Fold Luo (DFLuo) DC-DC converter topology is utilized to regulate the output DC power to improve the battery storage of the EV system. Consequently, the optimization-based Dynamic Supervision-PID (DS-PID) control mechanism is employed to recognize the maximum power from PV to generate the control pulses for switching activities. After that, the Fractional Quadratic Linearizer (FQL) control technique is utilized for controlling the speed of BLDC motor, in which the current limiter controls the speed based on the input features of the brake and the speed of motor running at each time instant. During the simulation evaluation, the results of the proposed control mechanisms are validated and compared using various performance measures.</p> A. P. Siva Subramanian, B. S. Sutha, K. R. Aravind Britto Copyright (c) 2022 A. P. Siva Subramanian, B. S. Sutha, K. R. Aravind Britto https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/30492 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Editorial Board https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/31276 Elektronika ir Elektrotechnika Copyright (c) 2022 Elektronika ir Elektrotechnika https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/31276 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Energetically Optimal Trajectory for a Redundant Planar Robot by Means of a Nested Loop Algorithm https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/30397 <p>This work presents an optimal point-to-point trajectory planning method based on fourth degree polynomials to reduce the energy consumption of a redundant planar robot in the XY plane. The contribution of this study focuses on the development of a two-level nested optimization algorithm, which manages to optimize three elements: the Optimal Weighting Vector that establishes the influence of each joint on the total energy consumption of the robotic equipment; the optimal start and finish configurations of the trajectory; and the vector corresponding to the fifth coefficient of the trajectory generator polynomial. The tests are carried out with different optimization techniques and objective functions related to energy consumption to determine their best combination and achieve the minimum possible computation time and energy savings, according to the test conditions used. Furthermore, the energetic performance of the redundant manipulator is compared with its non-redundant version, limiting its operation to only two degrees of freedom in all its variants.</p> Harold Potter, John Kern, Guillermo Gonzalez, Claudio Urrea Copyright (c) 2022 Harold Potter, John Kern, Guillermo Gonzalez, Claudio Urrea https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/30397 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Big Data in Vehicular Cloud Computing: Review, Taxonomy, and Security Challenges https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/30178 <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Modern vehicles equipped with various smart sensors have become a means of transportation and have become a means of collecting, creating, computing, processing, and transferring data while traveling through modern and rural cities. A traditional vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) cannot handle the enormous and complex data that are collected by modern vehicle sensors (e.g., cameras, lidar, and global positioning systems (GPS)) because they require rapid processing, analysis, management, storage, and uploading to trusted national authorities. Furthermore, the integrated VANET with cloud computing presents a new concept, vehicular cloud computing (VCC), which overcomes the limitations of VANET, brings new services and applications to vehicular networks, and generates a massive amount of data compared to the data collected by individual vehicles alone. Therefore, this study explored the importance of big data in VCC. First, we provide an overview of traditional vehicular networks and their limitations. Then we investigate the relationship between VCC and big data, fundamentally focusing on how VCC can generate, transmit, store, upload, and process big data to share it among vehicles on the road. Subsequently, a new taxonomy of big data in VCC was presented. Finally, the security challenges in big data-based VCCs are discussed.</p> </div> </div> </div> Majed S. Alsayfi, Mohamed Y. Dahab, Fathy E. Eassa, Reda Salama, Seif Haridi, Abdullah S. Al-Ghamdi Copyright (c) 2022 Majed S. Alsayfi, Mohamed Y. Dahab, Fathy E. Eassa, Reda Salama, Seif Haridi, Abdullah S. Al-Ghamdi https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/30178 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300