Elektronika ir Elektrotechnika https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt <div><em>ELEKTRONIKA IR ELEKTROTECHNIKA</em> (ISSN 1392-1215) is a peer-reviewed open access bimonthly research journal of Kaunas University of Technology.</div> <p>The research journal <em>ELEKTRONIKA IR ELEKTROTECHNIKA</em> publishes original research papers on featuring practical developments that might have a significant impact in the field of <em>electronics and electrical engineering</em>, and focuses on automation, robotics &amp; control; automotive electronics; electric vehicles; electrical engineering; electronic measurements; electronics; high frequency technologies, microwaves; micro &amp; nano-electronics; power electronics; renewable energy; signal technologies; telecommunications engineering. It is aimed not only to researchers of certain field , but also to the wider public.</p> <p><strong><em>WoS</em></strong><strong><em>: </em></strong><em>Impact</em> <em>Factor</em><em> 0.707 (</em><em>2019); </em><em>5-Year </em><em>Impact</em> <em>Factor</em> <em>0.656 (</em><em>2019) </em><strong><em>Scopus</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong> <em>SCImago</em> <em>Journal</em> <em>Rank</em><em> 0.18 (2019)</em></p> Kaunas University of Technology en-US Elektronika ir Elektrotechnika 1392-1215 <p>The copyright for the paper in this journal is retained by the author(s) with the first publication right granted to the journal. The authors agree to the <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC BY 4.0)</a> agreement under which the paper in the Journal is licensed.</p> <p>By virtue of their appearance in this open access journal, papers are free to use with proper attribution in educational and other non-commercial settings with an acknowledgement of the initial publication in the journal.</p> A Parallel Connected Hybrid Microstrip-Substrate Integrated Waveguide Bandstop Filter https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/31628 <p>This study presents an original parallel connected hybrid microstrip-substrate integrated waveguide (PCHM-SIW) bandstop filter. A low-pass filter implemented on a microstrip structure and a SIW-based high-pass filter are connected in parallel to each other. In this way, the aim is to obtain a bandstop filter in the novel hybrid design. The parallel connected hybrid microstrip-substrate integrated waveguide (PCHM-SIW) bandstop filter is synthesised, simulated, and produced. The effects of connecting filters in parallel are discussed. It is seen from the results of CST Studio Suite simulation that PCHM-SIW bandstop filter has a bandwidth of 2.85 GHz and a center frequency of 4.26 GHz. The frequency change rate of the center frequency between simulation and measurement is 7.02 % where it is just 3.76 % for the deviation in bandwidth. The results of the simulation and those of the measurement are close to each other. These results converge to ideal analytical results.</p> Kemal Guvenli Sibel Yenikaya Mustafa Secmen Copyright (c) 2023 Kemal Guvenli, Sibel Yenikaya, Mustafa Secmen 2023-12-22 2023-12-22 29 6 26 32 10.5755/j02.eie.31628 Editorial Board https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/35821 Elektronika ir Elektrotechnika Copyright (c) 2023 Elektronika ir Elektrotechnika 2023-12-22 2023-12-22 29 6 2 3 Optimum Design of an 18-Pulse Phase Shifting Autotransformer Rectifier to Improve the Power Quality of Cascaded H-Bridge Motor Driver https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/35126 <p>Due to its simplicity, efficiency, and dependability, the multipulse rectifier is widely used in electrical systems. In the presented work, an optimum design of an 18-pulse rectifier is achieved by comparing the most used configurations on the market. The 18-phase shifting autotransformer (18-PSAT) rectifier is a cheaper alternative to conventional rectifiers to reduce system harmonics. After a thorough study of the market needs and available use, this paper discusses four different structures that provide harmonic levels according to IEEE 519 limitations. An innovative 18-PSAT is shown, studied, simulated, produced, and tested with low power loss rates. The Delta differential configuration primarily emphasises lowering the loss power rating for improved power quality. With its simple structure, easy assembly, and direct connection to diodes, the proposed Delta differential configuration provides higher power quality and can cancel harmonics. To determine which 18-PSAT rectifier unit has the best weight, size, and power quality, a comparison of the selected topologies is made. A comprehensive comparison of each topology has simulation results showing current, voltage, and total harmonic distortion (THD) using MATLAB Simulink. The simulation results show that the total harmonic distortion is under 2.9 % when adopting the suggested Delta differential configuration topology. Compared to other designs, the suggested 18-pulse layout reduces overall cost and footprint by a large margin. It is also demonstrated that the DC load power is about 85 % of the recommended rectifier rating.</p> Adil Alahmad Firat Kacar Cengiz Polat Uzunogl Copyright (c) 2023 Adil Alahmad, Firat Kacar, Cengiz Polat Uzunogl 2023-12-22 2023-12-22 29 6 12 18 10.5755/j02.eie.35126 Deep Learning Method for Power Side-Channel Analysis on Chip Leakages https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/34650 <p>Power side channel analysis signal analysis is automated using deep learning. Signal processing and cryptanalytic techniques are necessary components of power side channel analysis. Chip leakages can be found using a classification approach called deep learning. In addition to this, we do this so that the deep learning network can automatically tackle signal processing difficulties such as re-alignment and noise reduction. We were able to break minimally protected Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), as well as masking-countermeasure AES and protected elliptic-curve cryptography (ECC). These results demonstrate that the attacker knowledge required for side channel analysis, which had previously placed a significant emphasis on human abilities, is decreasing. This research will appeal to individuals with a technical background who have an interest in deep learning, side channel analysis, and security.</p> Amjed Abbas Ahmed Rana Ali Salim Mohammad Kamrul Hasan Copyright (c) 2023 Amjed Abbas Ahmed, Rana Ali Salim, Mohammad Kamrul Hasan 2023-12-22 2023-12-22 29 6 50 57 10.5755/j02.eie.34650 Identifying the Causes of Ship Collisions Accident Using Text Mining and Bayesian Networks https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/35630 <p>Under the backdrop of the robust growth of the global economy, the water transport industry is experiencing rapid development, resulting in an increase in ship collisions and a critical water traffic safety situation. This study uses text mining techniques to gather a corpus of data. The corpus includes human factors, ship factors, natural environmental factors, and management factors, which are used as target data to obtain a high-dimensional sparse original feature vector space set comprising eigenvalues and eigenvalue weight attributes. Chi-square statistics are utilised to reduce dimensionality, resulting in a final set of 33-dimensional text feature items that determine the causal factors of ship collision risk. Taking the four steps involved in the collision process as the primary focus, a Bayesian network structure for ship collision risk is constructed based on the “human-ship-environment-management” system. By incorporating existing ship collision accident/danger reports, conditional probability tables are computed for each node in the Bayesian network structure, enabling the modelling of ship collision risk. The model is validated through an example, revealing that, under relevant conditions, the probability of collision exceeds 90 %. This finding demonstrates the validity of the model and allows one to deduce the primary cause of ship collision accidents.</p> Jianguo Yu Zhihua Wu Wei Liu Wenji Zhao Copyright (c) 2023 Jianguo Yu, Zhihua Wu, Wei Liu, Wenji Zhao 2023-12-22 2023-12-22 29 6 58 67 10.5755/j02.eie.35630 Simulation of Autonomous Driving for a Line-Following Robotic Vehicle: Determining the Optimal Manoeuvring Mode https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/32364 <p>Mobile robotic systems offer valuable test platforms due to their shared features with autonomous vehicles, including features such as sensor technologies, navigation algorithms, and control systems. However, constraints in laboratory environments or technical resources, along with the need for extensive testing, often necessitate the use of virtual test laboratories. While line-following is a widely preferred application in mobile robotics, research on this topic within virtual laboratories is limited. This study pioneers the use of a car-like robotic vehicle in conducting line-following tests within a virtual laboratory environment. To facilitate these tests, a virtual simulator was developed to meet the requirements of realistic simulations. This simulator includes simulated elements, such as roads and environmental features, along with virtual sensors designed to collect and process dynamic motion data. An exceptional aspect of this study is its ability to collect consistent dynamic travel data by sampling realistic sensor information within a virtual environment. The developed line-following algorithm employs a controller to minimise lateral deviation while the robotic vehicle follows a road line during its movement. The study conducted virtual driving tests using two different manoeuvre modes on four distinct road segments, exploring how the manoeuvring style influences the driving quality. It was demonstrated that in the low manoeuvre mode, the ride is more comfortable, but exhibits a greater route deviation due to reduced oscillation, while the high manoeuvre mode exhibits the opposite behaviour.</p> Murat Bakirci Copyright (c) 2023 Murat Bakirci 2023-12-22 2023-12-22 29 6 4 11 10.5755/j02.eie.32364 Title https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/35819 Elektronika ir Elektrotechnika Copyright (c) 2023 Elektronika ir Elektrotechnika 2023-12-22 2023-12-22 29 6 1 1 Time-Based High-Pass, Low-Pass, Shelf, and Notch Filters https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/35277 <p>This paper presents formulations for time-based first-order and second-order high-pass, shelf, and notch filters. These formulations are an extension to the existing literature where low-pass filters are already developed using a multiphase controlled oscillator in conjunction with a phase detector and charge pump. The presented high-pass filter expands the circuit by introducing a current-controlled delay line (CCDL) that provides a direct path from input to output. By combining the high-pass filter with the low-pass filter, we show that shelf and notch filters can be obtained without an increase in circuit complexity compared to the high-pass filter. The results show good matching between the ideal small signal and the simulated time-based large signal frequency response. The simulated of total harmonic distortion for the filters shows an increase in distortion due to the nonlinearities introduced by the CCDL for the high-pass, notch, and shelf filter compared to the existing low-pass filter. The derivation of the new filter types allows the creation of complex high-order time-based filters by combining multiple first- or second-order filters.</p> Nicolai J. Dahl Pere L. Muntal Michael A. E. Andersen Copyright (c) 2023 Nicolai J. Dahl, Pere L. Muntal, Michael A. E. Andersen 2023-12-22 2023-12-22 29 6 33 40 10.5755/j02.eie.35277 Design of a High-Performance Control Scheme for a Grid-Connected DFIG‐Based Wind Energy Conversion System Using Model Predictive Control and Hysteresis Model https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/34722 <p>In this paper, we present a novel design and development of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) for a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG). A hysteresis current control is used to improve the DC bus for rectifier and smart current control by model predictive of three-level-NPC (3L-NPC) inverter. The advantages of this intelligent method are such as fast dynamic answers and the easy implementation of nonlinearities, and that it requires fewer calculations to choose the best switching state. In addition, an innovative algorithm is proposed to adjust the current ripples and output voltage harmonics of the wind energy conversion system. The performance of the system was analysed by simulation using MATLAB/Simulink.</p> Hamed Kamel Eddine Zine Abed Khoudir Copyright (c) 2023 Hamed Kamel Eddine Zine, Abed Khoudir 2023-12-22 2023-12-22 29 6 41 49 10.5755/j02.eie.34722 The Classification of Resampled Pediatric Epilepsy EEG Data Using Artificial Neural Networks with Discrete Fourier Transforms https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/34433 <p>Epilepsy is a neurological disorder commonly observed in children. Currently, electroencephalography (EEG) is widely used as the most important diagnostic method for epilepsy in medical practice. The diagnosis of epilepsy in pediatric patients is challenging due to their high level of activity and incomplete brain development. In this study, data sampled at 256 Hz were obtained from patients between the ages of 7–12, collected by Boston Children’s Hospital. First, the image intervals that contain seizure waves were identified in the datasets, and the discrete-time Fourier transform (DFT) was applied. The amplitude-frequency features of the frequency spectrum in seizure and nonseizure states were obtained, and patients were classified for seizure detection using a multilayer perceptron (MLP) based on an artificial neural network (ANN) architecture. In the next step, the EEG signals were resampled at low frequencies, and the same analyses were repeated to minimise the disadvantages of limiting factors such as storage space and processing power, resulting in reduced storage space usage and more efficient performance.</p> Temel Sonmezocak Gizem Guler Merih Yildiz Copyright (c) 2023 Temel Sonmezocak, Gizem Guler, Merih Yildiz 2023-12-22 2023-12-22 29 6 19 25 10.5755/j02.eie.34433