Elektronika ir Elektrotechnika https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt <div><em>ELEKTRONIKA IR ELEKTROTECHNIKA</em> (ISSN 1392-1215) is a peer-reviewed open access bimonthly research journal of Kaunas University of Technology.</div> <p>The research journal <em>ELEKTRONIKA IR ELEKTROTECHNIKA</em> publishes original research papers on featuring practical developments that might have a significant impact in the field of <em>electronics and electrical engineering</em>, and focuses on automation, robotics &amp; control; automotive electronics; electric vehicles; electrical engineering; electronic measurements; electronics; high frequency technologies, microwaves; micro &amp; nano-electronics; power electronics; renewable energy; signal technologies; telecommunications engineering. It is aimed not only to researchers of certain field , but also to the wider public.</p> <p><strong><em>WoS</em></strong><strong><em>: </em></strong><em>Impact</em> <em>Factor</em><em> 0.707 (</em><em>2019); </em><em>5-Year </em><em>Impact</em> <em>Factor</em> <em>0.656 (</em><em>2019) </em><strong><em>Scopus</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong> <em>SCImago</em> <em>Journal</em> <em>Rank</em><em> 0.18 (2019)</em></p> Kaunas University of Technology en-US Elektronika ir Elektrotechnika 1392-1215 <p>The copyright for the paper in this journal is retained by the author(s) with the first publication right granted to the journal. The authors agree to the <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC BY 4.0)</a> agreement under which the paper in the Journal is licensed.</p> <p>By virtue of their appearance in this open access journal, papers are free to use with proper attribution in educational and other non-commercial settings with an acknowledgement of the initial publication in the journal.</p> Title https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/35037 Elektronika ir Elektrotechnika Copyright (c) 2023 Elektronika ir Elektrotechnika 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 29 4 1 1 Novel Lossless Positive-/Negative-Grounded Capacitance Multipliers Using VCII https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/34304 <p>In the presented research, the second-generation voltage conveyor (VCII) is used in the design of active capacitance multipliers. In this paper, three positive and one negative lossless grounded capacitance multipliers (GCMs) are designed. All of these GCMs are designed using two VCIIs, one capacitor, and two resistors. There is no need for any passive component matching to implement a GCM. The multiplication factor of GCMs can be set/varied by changing the values of two resistances as per requirement. Considering nonideal constraints, GCMs are analysed mathematically to evaluate the effect of nonideal current and voltage transfer gains on the performance of the proposed GCMs. Also, parasitic analysis is conducted to study the effect of VCII node impedance on the performance of the presented GCMs. The simulation analysis is performed using Cadence Virtuoso in 0.18 µm Silterra Malaysia process design kit (PDK). Additionally, the macro-model of commercially available integrated circuit, AD844, is used to design the proposed GCM-2 to further prove the theoretical findings.</p> Mohammad Faseehuddin Sadia Shireen Sawal Hamid Md Ali Worapong Tangsrirat Copyright (c) 2023 Mohammad Faseehuddin, Sadia Shireen, Sawal Hamid Md Ali, Worapong Tangsrirat 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 29 4 19 26 10.5755/j02.eie.34304 Design and Research of the Image Processing Unit and Telemetric Equipment for the Laser-Guided Very Short Range Air Defence Systems Field Simulator https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/33634 <p>In this article, the engineering concept of the laser-guided very short range air defence system field simulator, its structure, and practical use are presented. The possibilities and advantages of the practical use of the equipment developed in tactical exercises and individual training of air defence specialists are shown. The field simulator equipment without invasion and compromising functionality into the combat air defence system has been connected and installed. The simulator performs all required shooting procedures without using combat missiles, target detection, shot execution, and maintaining the target in the sighting lens until its destruction. The field simulator reduces training process expenses and increases its efficiency. In the article, the ground control and onboard control units are presented. The units consist of target detection and its positioning, coordinate defining and data transmission (global positioning system (GPS), personal computer (PC), radio frequency (RF) transceiver), pyrotechnic charge for missile launch simulation, and target destruction devices (e.g., smoke generator), whose operating principles, functional capabilities, and work reliability are ensured on the basis of conducted research. The field simulator, which was created based on synthesising the simulator systems studied, has proven itself in practise.</p> Algimantas Fedaravicius Karolis Jasas Arvydas Survila Vitas Grimaila Copyright (c) 2023 Algimantas Fedaravicius, Karolis Jasas, Arvydas Survila, Vitas Grimaila 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 29 4 27 36 10.5755/j02.eie.33634 Design of Convolutional Neural Networks Architecture for Non-Profiled Side-Channel Attack Detection https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/33995 <p>Deep learning (DL) is a new option that has just been made available for side-channel analysis. DL approaches for profiled side-channel attacks (SCA) have dominated research till now. In this attack, the attacker has complete control over the profiling device and can collect many traces for a range of critical parameters to characterise device leakage before the attack. In this study, we apply DL algorithms to non-profiled data. An attacker can only retrieve a limited number of side-channel traces from a closed device with an unknown key value in non-profiled mode. The authors conducted this research. Key estimations and deep learning measurements can reveal the secret key. We prove that this is doable. This technology is excellent for non-profits. DL and neural networks can benefit these organisations. Neural networks can provide a new technique to verify the safety of hardware cryptographic algorithms. It was recently suggested. This study creates a non-profiled SCA utilising convolutional neural networks (CNNs) on an AVR microcontroller with 8 bits of memory and the AES-128 cryptographic algorithm. We used aligned power traces with several samples to demonstrate how challenging CNN-based SCA is in practise. This will help us reach our goals. Here is another technique to create a solid CNN data set. In particular, CNN-based SCA experiment data and noise effects are examined. These experiments employ power traces with Gaussian noise. The CNN-based SCA works well with our data set for non-profiled attacks. Gaussian noise on power traces causes many more issues. These results show that our method can recover more bytes successfully from SCA compared to other methods in correlation power analysis (CPA) and DL-SCA without regularisation.</p> Amjed Abbas Ahmed Mohammad Kamrul Hasan Shayla Islam Azana Hafizah Mohd Aman Nurhizam Safie Copyright (c) 2023 Amjed Abbas Ahmed, Mohammad Kamrul Hasan, Shayla Islam, Azana Hafizah Mohd Aman, Nurhizam Safie 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 29 4 76 81 10.5755/j02.eie.33995 Documentation as Code in Automotive System/Software Engineering https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/33843 <p class="first-paragraph">Documentation as Code (DaC) is an approach that applies the principles of software development to the production of technical documentation. Using modern tools, DaC enables software engineers to treat documentation as a first-class citizen in the development process, alongside code and tests. In this paper, we discuss the advantages of DaC in system and software engineering, including improved accuracy, traceability, and maintainability. In the automotive industry, DaC has been used to document various aspects of vehicle development, such as requirements, design, testing, and compliance. This paper provides an overview of the state-of-the-art in DaC in the automotive industry and discusses the potential benefits and challenges of using this approach. In addition, case studies and examples of how DaC has been used in the automotive industry to improve the quality and maintainability of documentation are presented. This research has been conducted with more than 150 engineers actively contributing to DaC on the project for more than a year within a company, so the scalability of the presented solution has been tested. Finally, a set of guidelines is provided for teams to follow when adopting DaC to ensure successful implementation.</p> Momcilo V. Krunic Copyright (c) 2023 Momcilo Krunic 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 29 4 61 75 10.5755/j02.eie.33843 Editorial Board https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/35038 Elektronika ir Elektrotechnika Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 29 4 2 3 Robust Consensus-based Formation Control of a Group of UAV https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/34306 <p>Consensus-based formation control (CFC) is one of the most phenomenal formation control methods designed to achieve consensus between any vehicles that using and sharing their position and/or linear velocity with each other in a swarm mission. In this paper, a robust CFC (R-CFC) has been designed and proposed to realize pre-defined formation shapes with a team of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). First, the double integrator dynamics of an UAV is presented. Second, the graph theory is explained briefly to understand any adjacency between UAVs. Then, the proposed R-CFC algorithm has been derived and the stability analysis has been proven via algebraic Riccati stability theory based on Lyapunov stability theorem. After that, the effectiveness of the proposed controller has been tested in real time outdoor tests. The experimental results show that the UAVs have been able to create the desired formation shapes and are less affected by external disturbances such as wind thanks to the proposed control algorithm.&nbsp;</p> Abdullah Basci Copyright (c) 2023 Abdullah Basci 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 29 4 4 10 10.5755/j02.eie.34306 Advanced Pitch Angle Control Based on Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimisation on FAST Turbine Systems https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/34205 <p>In this paper, the increase in the quality of the rotor speed of wind turbines and the decrease in mechanical loads on the turbines are investigated. Adjusting the angle of the blade to the nominal wind speed, the rotor speed of the wind turbine is maintained at its nominal value. Using control methods (such as proportional integral (PI), genetic algorithms (GAs), and particle swarm optimisation (PSO)), different results can be recovered. In addition, individual control of the blade tilt angle allows us to reduce the mechanical loads on the turbine with the control methods. The wind turbine was modelled in Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results show that individual control of the blade tilt angle ensures the quality of the rotor speed of the wind turbine and reduces the balanced periodic loads on the wind turbine. In the first part, we study the wind turbine in a global way, as well as the method used to calculate them. Then, we discuss the FAST system, which was used to model the wind turbine, as well as the design of individual pitch angle control. As a result, it is possible to reduce the fatigue of the mechanical wind turbine parts. According to the study, the mechanical load for all three blades was reduced by an average of 44 % compared to the PI and PSO methods and by 1 % compared to the PI and GA methods. The control of the pitch angle in wind energy systems is performed with different control methods. The study analysis of the mechanical loads found that they are largely balanced. Winds that blow perpendicular to the turbine blades on the x-axis provide these loads.</p> Goksu Gorel Mahdi O. Abdi Copyright (c) 2023 Goksu Gorel, Mahdi O. Abdi 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 29 4 11 18 10.5755/j02.eie.34205 Manufacturing of Low-Cost Parabolic Dish Concentrators with Manual Dual-Axis Tracking https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/33870 <p>The increased rate of energy crises around the world results in expanding the role of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) technology for different applications, comprising heating process and power generation applications. The Parabolic Dish Concentrator (PDC) with its large concentration ratio and its modular capacity attracts researchers’ efforts. In this research work, we have designed and developed a PDC with back silvered mirrors as reflector material. Then we have sized the following geometric parameters: the dish diameter, the focal length, the aperture area, the rim angle, the geometric concentration ratio, the receiver material, and the receiver diameter. Furthermore, a dual-axis manual tracking system has been built for this PDC. It should be mentioned that the different components of the PDC have been recycled from a scrap yard to develop a low-cost PDC system. Finally, we have investigated the temperature evolution as a function of time at the focus spot. The maximum temperature obtained is 112 °C for the PDC with mirror. The findings of the study reveal the possibility of building a low-cost solar concentrator with good performance and high quality, only by employing recycled materials, and it could be operated in various applications.</p> Abd Elhalim Benzetta Mahfoud Abderrezek Ali Chettoh Asma Benbahia Mokhtaria Copyright (c) 2023 Abd Elhalim Benzetta, Mahfoud Abderrezek, Ali Chettoh, Asma Benbahia Mokhtaria 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 29 4 37 43 10.5755/j02.eie.33870 Differential Evolution Algorithm Based Very Fast Renewable Energy System Optimisation Tool Design https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/33872 <p>In this study, an optimisation tool that uses the differential evolution algorithm with a special distribution strategy is designed for the first time to be used in the optimisation of hybrid renewable energy systems. The developed tool and the hybrid optimisation model for multiple energy resources (HOMER) optimisation programme were compared. The tool is much faster than the HOMER programme and can produce almost the same results as HOMER. In addition, a heuristic-based optimisation technique was used for the first time to generate extremely comprehensive findings. The capacity shortage parameter, which is not used much in the literature, is used as a reliability parameter. The cost of energy (COE) was used as the cost function. The results are promising for detailed optimisation studies in this area.</p> Cemil Altin Copyright (c) 2023 Cemil Altin 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 29 4 44 53 10.5755/j02.eie.33872 Low-Carbon Economic Multi-Objective Dispatch of an Integrated Energy System Based on GAPSO https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/33944 <p>In recent years, several countries have proposed targets for carbon neutrality in energy, and the transformation of energy systems has become a research hotspot. As a system capable of coupling multi-energy, achieving high penetrations of renewable energy, and improving energy efficiency, the integrated energy system will take on more responsibility under the carbon neutrality target. This paper uses GAPSO (which combines genetic algorithm with particle swarm optimisation algorithm, has a faster iteration speed, and avoids local optimisation) to solve the Pareto frontier set considering the system operation costs and carbon emission. The system operation costs are described using Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) to predict the stochastic output of the renewable energy source and a penalty function based on the predicted mean vote (PMV) model to describe the thermal comfort of the user, which is solved using the genetic algorithm (GA) algorithm. The carbon emission is calculated using the carbon accounting method.</p> Minglei Qin Anjie Lu Yu Huang Copyright (c) 2023 Minglei Qin, Anjie Lu, Yu Huang 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 29 4 54 60 10.5755/j02.eie.33944