Elektronika ir Elektrotechnika https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt <div><em>ELEKTRONIKA IR ELEKTROTECHNIKA</em> (ISSN 1392-1215) is a peer-reviewed open access bimonthly research journal of Kaunas University of Technology.</div> <p>The research journal <em>ELEKTRONIKA IR ELEKTROTECHNIKA</em> publishes original research papers on featuring practical developments that might have a significant impact in the field of <em>electronics and electrical engineering</em>, and focuses on automation, robotics &amp; control; automotive electronics; electric vehicles; electrical engineering; electronic measurements; electronics; high frequency technologies, microwaves; micro &amp; nano-electronics; power electronics; renewable energy; signal technologies; telecommunications engineering. It is aimed not only to researchers of certain field , but also to the wider public.</p> <p><strong><em>WoS</em></strong><strong><em>: </em></strong><em>Impact</em> <em>Factor</em><em> 0.707 (</em><em>2019); </em><em>5-Year </em><em>Impact</em> <em>Factor</em> <em>0.656 (</em><em>2019) </em><strong><em>Scopus</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong> <em>SCImago</em> <em>Journal</em> <em>Rank</em><em> 0.18 (2019)</em></p> Kaunas University of Technology en-US Elektronika ir Elektrotechnika 1392-1215 <p>The copyright for the paper in this journal is retained by the author(s) with the first publication right granted to the journal. The authors agree to the <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC BY 4.0)</a> agreement under which the paper in the Journal is licensed.</p> <p>By virtue of their appearance in this open access journal, papers are free to use with proper attribution in educational and other non-commercial settings with an acknowledgement of the initial publication in the journal.</p> Performance Analysis of ZigBeePRO Network Using the Shortest Path Algorithm for Distributed Renewable Generation https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/26783 <p>The communication requirement for integrating Distributed Renewable Generation (DRG) into Smart Grid (SG) is not strict, where the reliability and critical demand of data delivery are compromised due to the low-data rate and power of ZigBee. However, the presence of various dielectric constant materials in the DRG can cause transmission impairments of the electromagnetic wave. In this paper, we have analysed the performance of the ZigBeePRO network by applying the shortest path algorithm while delivering energy data from the solar DRG to the SG. The DRG architecture is created by considering a real test-bed of 35 kW solar DRG at Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). The numbers of nodes are calculated from specifications of the ZigBeePRO enabled Waspmote embedded board, inverters, and electrical parameters of a Photovoltaic (PV) module. The results of the obtained propagation path loss model indicate that the Transverse Electric (TE) and Transverse Magnetic (TM) polarizations are proportional to the loss of the propagation path at different incident angles (α); however, an exception is observed for the TM polarization at α = 55 <sup>o</sup>. Due to this polarization effect, the brick-built type cabin at the DRG site is a consequence of a higher propagation path loss than the Iron (III)-made cabin. The other performance parameters, including network throughput, data loss, and ZigBeePRO collision, are also evaluated.</p> Syed Zahurul Islam Mohammad Lutfi Othman Syed Zahidul Islam Copyright (c) 2021 Syed Zahurul Islam, Mohammad Lutfi Othman, Syed Zahidul Islam 2021-12-14 2021-12-14 27 6 49 56 10.5755/j02.eie.26783 Application of a Task Stalling Buffer in Distributed Hybrid Cloud Computing https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/28679 <p>The purpose of the research is to create a hybrid cloud platform that performs distributed computing tasks using high-performance servers and volunteer computing resources. The proposed platform uses a new task scheduling method, which is also presented in this paper. It uses a task stalling buffer to manage workload among the two grids without any additional information about the tasks. Since efficient task scheduling in these distributed systems is the actual problem, the system reliability issue is solved using a hybrid cloud architecture when both high-performance servers and volunteer computing resources are combined. The results of the experiment showed that the proposed solution solves the problem of balancing workload between two grids better than the standard scheduling algorithm. Computer study and experiments also showed that the proposed hybrid cloud tasks scheduling method with a task stalling buffer reduces up to 47.3 % of total task execution time. The outcome of this paper provides a background for future research on a task stalling buffer in hybrid cloud computing.</p> Albertas Jurgelevicius Leonidas Sakalauskas Virginijus Marcinkevicius Copyright (c) 2021 Albertas Jurgelevicius, Leonidas Sakalauskas, Virginijus Marcinkevicius 2021-12-14 2021-12-14 27 6 57 65 10.5755/j02.eie.28679 Editorial Board https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/30308 Elektronika ir Elektrotechnika Copyright (c) 2021 Elektronika ir Elektrotechnika 2021-12-14 2021-12-14 27 6 2 3 Implementation of a PID Type Sliding-Mode Controller Design Based on Fractional Order Calculus for Industrial Process System https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/30306 <p>This paper is devoted to designing a fractional order Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) type sliding mode control method (FO-PIDSMC) for a non-linear liquid level coupled tank process system. By considering the individual advantages of the FO calculus and PID type SMC method, this proposed FO-PIDSMC technique is designed to integrate the FO calculus method with PID type SMC scheme to obtain an accurate and robust liquid level tracking in terms of the predefined reference trajectory. The real-time experimental results of the proposed controller suggest a dramatic improvement over the traditional process system controller methods in both trajectory tracking and required control action.</p> Kagan Koray Ayten Ahmet Dumlu Copyright (c) 2021 Kagan Koray Ayten, Ahmet Dumlu 2021-12-14 2021-12-14 27 6 4 10 10.5755/j02.eie.30306 Control of the Automatic Voltage Regulator System with a Novel Stability-based Artificial Intelligence Method https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/30143 <p>This paper proposes a novel Stability-Based Artificial Intelligence Method for predicting the optimum parameters of the proportional-integral-derivative controller in an automatic voltage regulator system. To implement the stability-based artificial intelligence method, first, parameters which are of great importance for the control of the system are applied to the system randomly, data are collected, and then artificial intelligence studies are carried out. The suggested approach has been applied to the system and compared with other control methods in the literature, namely the improved Kidney Inspired algorithm, Jaya algorithm, Tree Seed algorithm, Water Wave Optimization, and Biography-Based Optimization to test the robustness of the new method. The numerical results indicate that the proposed method significantly outperforms all other methods.</p> Rahma Tabakh Hasan Tiryaki Copyright (c) 2021 Rahma Tabakh, Hasan Tiryaki 2021-12-14 2021-12-14 27 6 11 16 10.5755/j02.eie.30143 Development of Georeferenced 3D Point Cloud in GPS Denied Environments Using Backpack Laser Scanning System https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/29063 <p>This paper presents a method to generate a Georeferenced 3D point cloud of GPS denied built structures using custom made backpack laser scanning system. An orthogonal combination of 2D Hokuyo laser scanners has been used on the backpack system to generate a 3D point cloud of the surveyed environments. The data logging of scanners and simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) of the scanning system have been carried out using Robot Operating System (ROS). The developed local SLAM based 3D point cloud solution has been transformed into global Georeferenced 3D point cloud using observed geographic coordinates of nearby GPS visible vicinities. Multiple indoor environments have been scanned and 3D point clouds have been developed which have been found accurate when compared to the ground truth. In comparison to available surveying solutions present in the local market, the developed system has been found more accurate, faster, and user friendly to generate structural results of the surveyed vicinities in detail. The efficacy of the system has been witnessed by local surveying companies by delivering the unique global coordinated solutions on affordable rates.</p> Syed Riaz un Nabi Jafri Yawar Rehman Sadia Muniza Faraz Hira Amjad Moazza Sultan Syed Jaudat Rashid Copyright (c) 2021 Syed Riaz un Nabi Jafri, Yawar Rehman, Sadia Muniza Faraz, Hira Amjad, Moazza Sultan, Syed Jaudat Rashid 2021-12-14 2021-12-14 27 6 25 34 10.5755/j02.eie.29063 Piscivorous Bird Deterrent Device Based on a Direct Digital Synthesis of Acoustic Signals https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/28977 <p>This paper addresses the development of an acoustic deterrent device for the protection of fishponds and other objects against the unwanted presence of birds. The objective of the paper is not only providing of a deep analysis of available technologies for waveform synthesis and generation, but also building a theoretical base for the design and implementation of acoustic bird deterrent solutions. The paper addresses the synthesis of bird songs and calls using technologies for music, speech, and other types of acoustic signal processing. The second part of the paper is devoted to the unique algorithms and implementation details of the intelligent acoustic deterrence device prototype. The practical applicability of algorithms for bird call record conversion into synthesizer sequences has been analysed and possible issues are highlighted. The effectiveness and ease of practical implementation of the given method in the hardware are briefly discussed.</p> Arturs Aboltins Dmitrijs Pikulins Juris Grizans Sergejs Tjukovs Copyright (c) 2021 Arturs Aboltins, Dmitrijs Pikulins, Juris Grizans, Sergejs Tjukovs 2021-12-14 2021-12-14 27 6 42 48 10.5755/j02.eie.28977 Reviewers https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/30309 Elektronika ir Elektrotechnika Copyright (c) 2021 Elektronika ir Elektrotechnika 2021-12-14 2021-12-14 27 6 67 67 Title https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/30307 Elektronika ir Elektrotechnika Copyright (c) 2021 Elektronika ir Elektrotechnika 2021-12-14 2021-12-14 27 6 1 1 Design and Analysis of a Rotor for a 22 kW Transversally Laminated Anisotropic Synchronous Reluctance Motor https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/29046 <p>Substantial increase in energy consumption in all around the world has led to researchers to need to produce electrical machines with high energy efficiency since majority of energy has been consumed at industry, especially by electrical machines. Among electrical machines, the Synchronous Reluctance Machines (SynRMs) have been preferred to investigate in recent years due to lack of Induction Machines (IMs) in terms of efficiency and high price of the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSMs). In this study, the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) showing the effects of phase angle of current, number of flux barriers, starting diameter of flux barriers, and ribs on machine performance of 22 kW Transversally Laminated Anisotropic (TLA)-SynRM with distributed winding have been carried out in ANSYS Electronics. The design is based on creating a novel rotor considering these rotor parameters since the utilized SynRM consists of same stator with same sized 22 kW IM. The performance of the machine has been investigated through torque, torque ripple, efficiency, saliency, and power factor. Moreover, the effect of the phase angle of the current on the machine performance and the comparison of the 22 kW-SynRM with the same sized and powered IM and with a different SynRM have been carried out in this study. This study has concluded that although the novel SynRM has high torque ripple values, it is better than the IM due to lack of copper losses of rotor and the previously utilized SynRM considering their efficiency classes. The efficiency class of novel SynRM is IE4, whereas that for utilized IM and previously created SynRM are IE1 and IE3, respectively.</p> Ali Ozdil Yunus Uzun Copyright (c) 2021 Ali Ozdil, Yunus Uzun 2021-12-14 2021-12-14 27 6 17 24 10.5755/j02.eie.29046 A 5 V to 180 V Charge Pump for Capacitive Loads in a 180 nm SOI Process https://eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/28852 <p>This paper presents two variants of a high step-up ratio charge pump for high voltage micro electro-mechanical system and condenser microphones. The implementations are based on an additive charge pump topology where respectively 46 and 57 cascaded stages are used to generate an output voltage of 182 V from a supply voltage of 5 V. The two charge pumps have been fabricated in a 180 nm SOI process with a breakdown voltage of more than 200 V and respectively occupy an area of 0.52 mm<sup>2</sup> and 0.39 mm<sup>2</sup>. The charge pumps can output up to 182.5 V and 181.7 V and are designed to drive a capacitive load with a leakage of 2 nA. When driven with a 100 kHz clock, their power consumption is respectively 40 µW and 20 µW. The rise time of the charge pumps output from 0 V to 182 V is less than 5 ms. The implemented charge pumps exhibit state-of-the-art performance for very high voltage dc-dc capacitive drive applications.</p> Jakob K. Toft Ivan H. H. Jorgensen Copyright (c) 2021 Jakob K. Toft, Ivan H. H. Jorgensen 2021-12-14 2021-12-14 27 6 35 41 10.5755/j02.eie.28852