Performance Comparison of Evolutionary Algorithms in the Design of a Hand-Pump Shape Microstrip Antenna for 5G Applications
In this work, a single element hand-pump shape microstrip patch antenna working at 3.4 GHz–3.8 GHz for future 5G applications is proposed. The overall dimensions of the proposed antenna are 34 mm × 28 mm × 1.6 mm. In order to obtain the desired bandwidth, three rectangular slots are etched from the radiating element along with the utilization of the defected ground structure. To optimize the geometrical parameters of the proposed antenna, performance comparison of various optimization techniques viz. Particle Swarm Optimization, Bat algorithm, Differential Evolution, and Artificial Bee Colony algorithm are presented. The performance of the antenna is analyzed with the help of S-parameter, gain, and radiation efficiency. The proposed antenna is resonant at 3.6 GHz with an impedance bandwidth of 400 MHz and the radiation efficiency of 74 %, which is quite appropriate for a single element 5G antenna. Further, the suggested antenna is fabricated and experimentally tested for the validation of results.
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal the right of the first publication with the paper simultaneously licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC BY 4.0) licence.
Authors are allowed to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the paper published in the journal with an acknowledgement of the initial publication in the journal.
Copyright terms are indicated in the Republic of Lithuania Law on Copyright and Related Rights, Articles 4-37.