Analysis of Hardware Induced Receiver Synchronization Error, Caused by Differences in Manufacturer Specific Transmission Hardware Algorithms
With wireless sensor networks having become a tool of choice for a wide range of measurement and monitoring purposes, precise time synchronization is consequentially gaining prominence. Various protocols and synchronization methods are used to achieve the “sweet spot” amongst the accuracy, synchronization speed, and energy consumption of the network. In this paper, we have evaluated the device and modulation specific packet transmission uncertainty, eliminating all possible protocol related uncertainty sources. We have determined that the transceiver hardware dependent time, taken to transmit and receive the packet, not only depends on the transceiver model, but also highly dependent on the modulation. Moreover, sometimes transmission time distribution does not behave per the standard distribution model and seems to be additionally dependent on the internal processing logic of the device.
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal the right of the first publication with the paper simultaneously licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC BY 4.0) licence.
Authors are allowed to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the paper published in the journal with an acknowledgement of the initial publication in the journal.
Copyright terms are indicated in the Republic of Lithuania Law on Copyright and Related Rights, Articles 4-37.